Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are durable but not impervious to decay. Deterioration of RC structures is a worldwide problem due to its excessive cost, environmental impact, and safety issues.

According to Dr. Farhad Nabavi, senior technical director at concrete durability specialist Xypex, there are few reports of failure of RC structures due to lack of intrinsic strength in modern construction industries. However, even in developed nations with stringent building regulations, concrete structures can fail without warning. In May 1980,…